Escrevendo commando customizados para o django-admin

Novo no Django 1.0: Please, see the release notes

As aplicações podem registrar suas próprias ações com Por exemplo, você pode querer adicionar uma ação para uma aplicação Django que você está distribuíndo. In this document, we will be building a custom closepoll command for the polls application from the tutorial.

Para fazer isto, é só adicionar um diretório management/commands na sua aplicação. Cada módulo Python neste diretório será auto-discoberto e registrado como um comando que pode ser executado como uma ação quando você roda


Neste exemplo, o comando closepoll será disponibilizado para qualquer projeto que incluir a aplicação polls no settings.INSTALLED_APPS.

O módulo tem somente um requerimento -- ele deve definir uma classe chamada Command que estende ou uma de suas subclasses.

Standalone scripts

Custom management commands are especially useful for running standalone scripts or for scripts that are periodically executed from the UNIX crontab or from Windows scheduled tasks control panel.

To implement the command, edit polls/management/commands/ to look like this:

from import BaseCommand, CommandError
from example.polls.models import Poll

class Command(BaseCommand):
    args = '<poll_id poll_id ...>'
    help = 'Closes the specified poll for voting'

    def handle(self, *args, **options):
        for poll_id in args:
                poll = Poll.objects.get(pk=int(poll_id))
            except Poll.DoesNotExist:
                raise CommandError('Poll "%s" does not exist' % poll_id)

            poll.opened = False

            print 'Successfully closed poll "%s"' % poll_id

The new custom command can be called using python closepoll <poll_id>.

The handle() method takes zero or more poll_ids and sets poll.opened to False for each one. If the user referenced any nonexistant polls, a CommandError is raised. The poll.opened attribute does not exist in the tutorial and was added to polls.models.Poll for this example.

The same closepoll could be easily modified to delete a given poll instead of closing it by accepting additional command line options. These custom options must be added to option_list like this:

from optparse import make_option

class Command(BaseCommand):
    option_list = BaseCommand.option_list + (
            help='Delete poll instead of closing it'),
    # ...

In addition to being able to add custom command line options, all management commands can accept some default options such as --verbosity and --traceback.

Command objects

class BaseCommand

The base class from which all management commands ultimately derive.

Use this class if you want access to all of the mechanisms which parse the command-line arguments and work out what code to call in response; if you don't need to change any of that behavior, consider using one of its subclasses.

Subclassing the BaseCommand class requires that you implement the handle() method.


All attributes can be set in your derived class and can be used in BaseCommand's subclasses.


A string listing the arguments accepted by the command, suitable for use in help messages; e.g., a command which takes a list of application names might set this to '<appname appname ...>'.


A boolean indicating whether the command needs to be able to import Django settings; if True, execute() will verify that this is possible before proceeding. Default value is True.

A short description of the command, which will be printed in the help message when the user runs the command python help <command>.


This is the list of optparse options which will be fed into the command's OptionParser for parsing arguments.


A boolean indicating whether the command outputs SQL statements; if True, the output will automatically be wrapped with BEGIN; and COMMIT;. Default value is False.


A boolean; if True, validation of installed models will be performed prior to executing the command. Default value is True. To validate an individual application's models rather than all applications' models, call validate() from handle().


BaseCommand has a few methods that can be overridden but only the handle() method must be implemented.

Implementing a constructor in a subclass

If you implement __init__ in your subclass of BaseCommand, you must call BaseCommand's __init__.

class Command(BaseCommand):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(Command, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        # ...

Return the Django version, which should be correct for all built-in Django commands. User-supplied commands can override this method to return their own version.

BaseCommand.execute(*args, **options)

Try to execute this command, performing model validation if needed (as controlled by the attribute requires_model_validation). If the command raises a CommandError, intercept it and print it sensibly to stderr.

BaseCommand.handle(*args, **options)

The actual logic of the command. Subclasses must implement this method.

BaseCommand subclasses

class AppCommand

A management command which takes one or more installed application names as arguments, and does something with each of them.

Rather than implementing handle(), subclasses must implement handle_app(), which will be called once for each application.

AppCommand.handle_app(app, **options)

Perform the command's actions for app, which will be the Python module corresponding to an application name given on the command line.

class LabelCommand

A management command which takes one or more arbitrary arguments (labels) on the command line, and does something with each of them.

Rather than implementing handle(), subclasses must implement handle_label(), which will be called once for each label.

LabelCommand.handle_label(label, **options)

Perform the command's actions for label, which will be the string as given on the command line.

class NoArgsCommand

A command which takes no arguments on the command line.

Rather than implementing handle(), subclasses must implement handle_noargs(); handle() itself is overridden to ensure no arguments are passed to the command.


Perform this command's actions

Command exceptions

class CommandError

Exception class indicating a problem while executing a management command.

If this exception is raised during the execution of a management command, it will be caught and turned into a nicely-printed error message to the appropriate output stream (i.e., stderr); as a result, raising this exception (with a sensible description of the error) is the preferred way to indicate that something has gone wrong in the execution of a command.